Protein Needs Through the Reproductive Lifecycle: Preconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum

The journey of bringing a new life into the world is a miraculous and transformative experience, to say the least. During this incredible reproductive lifecycle, the nutritional needs of the body change significantly to support both the mother and the developing baby. One crucial macronutrient that plays a vital role in this process is protein. In this blog, we will explore the protein needs throughout the various stages of the reproductive lifecycle, including preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum.

Preconception: Building a Strong Foundation

Before conception occurs, it's essential for both partners to focus on their overall health and nutrition. Protein plays a fundamental role in this stage by supporting the production of healthy eggs and sperm. A balanced diet rich in protein sources like lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and nuts can help ensure the body is adequately nourished for a successful pregnancy.  In preconception, we recommend about 1g protein/KG body weight per day. 

Protein is crucial for:

  1. Cell Growth and Repair: Protein is the building block of cells, tissues, and enzymes in the body. It supports the repair and maintenance of tissues, which is essential for a healthy reproductive system.
  2. Hormone Production: Hormones regulate the menstrual cycle and play a key role in conception. Protein is necessary for the production and regulation of hormones like estrogen and progesterone.
  3. Fertility: Protein-rich diets are associated with improved fertility. Including high-quality protein sources can enhance the chances of conception.

Pregnancy: Fueling the Growth

Once pregnancy is confirmed, a woman's protein needs increase significantly to support the developing fetus, placenta, and maternal tissues. Adequate protein intake is vital for the proper growth and development of the baby.  The American Pregnancy Association recommends 70-100 grams of protein/day during pregnancy, increased needs with higher activity.  Adequate protein helps keep blood sugar stable, which is very supportive for keeping nausea at bay.

Protein is crucial during pregnancy for:

  1. Fetal Development: Proteins are essential for the formation of the baby's organs, muscles, and immune system.
  2. Placental Health: The placenta, which nourishes the baby, is rich in protein. Ensuring sufficient protein intake supports its function.
  3. Maternal Tissue Maintenance: Protein helps maintain the mother's muscles, skin, and other tissues that undergo changes during pregnancy.

During pregnancy, it's recommended to increase daily protein intake by about 25 grams. This can be achieved by adding protein-rich foods like lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and tofu to your diet.

Postpartum: Recovery and Lactation

After giving birth, a woman's body undergoes significant changes as it begins to recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Protein continues to be essential during the postpartum period for tissue repair, energy production, and supporting lactation if the mother chooses to breastfeed.

Protein is crucial postpartum for:

  1. Tissue Healing: Protein aids in the repair and recovery of tissues that may have been stretched or damaged during pregnancy and childbirth.
  2. Energy: The demands of caring for a newborn require extra energy, and protein can provide that sustained energy.
  3. Lactation: If breastfeeding, a woman's protein needs may increase to support milk production. Protein-rich foods can help ensure an adequate milk supply.

To meet these postpartum protein needs, focus on a well-balanced diet that includes lean proteins, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

Protein is a vital nutrient throughout the reproductive lifecycle, from preconception to pregnancy and postpartum. It plays multiple crucial roles in the growth and development of both the mother and the baby. Ensuring an adequate intake of high-quality protein sources is essential for a healthy and successful reproductive journey. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance on meeting your specific protein needs during each stage of this incredible journey. Remember that proper nutrition is a key component of a healthy and successful pregnancy and postpartum experience.


Understanding Protein Sources for Each Stage of the Reproductive Lifecycle

Proteins are essential during each stage of the reproductive lifecycle, but the sources and types of proteins can vary. In preconception we have clients avoid dairy for a number of reasons (that’s a different article!).  While it can be a beneficial source of nutrients, it is not the only way to get calcium and other minerals, and it generally comes with too many hormone disrupters. Reintroducing it can be beneficial for some clients later in pregnancy.  Here's a breakdown of the types of proteins that are beneficial during each stage:


  1. Animal Proteins: Lean meats such as chicken, turkey, and lean cuts of beef or pork are excellent sources of high-quality protein. They provide essential amino acids necessary for healthy egg and sperm development.
  2. Fatty Fish: Fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, and sardines not only provide protein but also essential omega-3 fatty acids, which are beneficial for fertility and reproductive health.
  3. Eggs: Eggs are a versatile source of protein and contain various nutrients important for fertility, including choline and B vitamins.
  4. Legumes: Beans, lentils, and chickpeas are plant-based protein sources that are also high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
  5. Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds are good sources of plant-based protein, healthy fats, and essential nutrients.


During pregnancy, it's important to maintain a well-balanced diet with a focus on protein-rich foods, including those mentioned above. Additionally, you can consider the following sources:

  1. Lean Protein Sources: Continue to include lean meats, poultry, and fish in your diet to provide the necessary amino acids for fetal growth.
  2. Dairy or Dairy Alternatives: These are essential sources of calcium and protein, which support the development of the baby's bones and teeth.  Other good sources of calcium include canned/pressure-cooked salmon and sardine with bones, as well as sesame seeds/tahini (among many other foods!). 
  3. Eggs: Eggs are an excellent source of choline, which is important for brain development in the fetus.
  4. Tofu and Soy Products: Tofu and soy-based products provide plant-based protein and are important to add in for vegetarians and vegans who tolerate it.
  5. Nuts and Seeds: Incorporate a variety of nuts and seeds to add protein, healthy fats, and additional nutrients to your diet.
  6. Whole Grains: Foods like quinoa, whole wheat (if you tolerate it), and brown rice can contribute protein and fiber to your diet.


After childbirth, protein remains important for postpartum recovery and, if you're breastfeeding, for milk production. Your protein sources can include:

  1. Lean Meats and Poultry: Continue to include these in your diet to support tissue repair and recovery.
  2. Fatty Fish: Omega-3-rich fish can aid in reducing inflammation and promoting overall health during the postpartum period.
  3. Dairy or Dairy Alternatives: If you're breastfeeding, these sources are essential for maintaining calcium levels and supporting your baby's bone health.
  4. Eggs: Eggs are a convenient source of protein and various nutrients for postpartum recovery.
  5. Legumes: Beans, lentils, and chickpeas are easy to incorporate into postpartum meals and provide protein, fiber, and energy.
  6. Nuts and Seeds: These can serve as convenient and nutritious snacks for busy new mothers.

Remember that hydration is also crucial during all stages of the reproductive lifecycle, so be sure to drink plenty of water to support your body's changing needs. Additionally, consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian can help you create a personalized nutrition plan tailored to your specific needs during each stage of this journey.